that the money belongs to them, they do not give anything; when they are told that it belongs to the other participant, they let her take it; when they. It is important to recognize that group functional selection pathways do not violate intuitive ideas of self-interested behavior. But note the metaphor. America on the Move by purusing the records from the museum's collection. Higher levels but also cultural variances at two (or more) levels. In a typical experiment with repeated rounds of play, free riding takes over and the public contribution dwindles to zero. Annals of Human Genetics, 1972. Modern advocates of group selection don't deny that selection acts on individual organisms; they only wish to add that it acts on higher-level aggregates, particularly groups of organisms, as well. A large body of social psychology research has characterized the active mechanisms that damp down variation within groups and protect between group variation from the effects of migration.
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There would have to be something equivalent to 'group gametes' or 'group propagules and all the genes in the group would have to share the same expectation of leaving the present group via the same propagule. Although many people claim that their opinion about death penalty is based on efficiency (partisans argue it deters crimes, opponents that it has no effect several studies have shown that, many people would actually continue to support death penalty even if it had no deterrent. On the other hand to call a phenomenon group selection which seldom if ever involves the differential replication (as contrasted with survival or growth ) of groups seems to me to be gratuitously misleading. 15 My point is that natural selection in particular is a poor model of cultural change. In defence of inclusive fitness theory. The hypothesis is, as Pinker notes, is designed to explain those features of evolutionespecially traits like altruism and cooperation in our own speciesthat seem disadvantageous to individuals but good for groups.
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