made clear that the antibodies possess ability for an almost unlimited range of reactivity. The above mentioned important historical contributions led rapid progress in immunology, which became instrumental in developing various fields of medical microbiology such as organ and tissue transplantation, vaccinology, and molecular biology, However (Table.1) lists the workers who have received Nobel prize for their significant. White Blood Cells Are the Policemen of the Body : The subject immunology involves the study of the organs, cells and molecules responsible for the recognition and disposal of foreign molecules that enter the host. The first recorded attempts to induce immunity deliberately were made by Chinese and Turks in the 15th century. This response is called effector response. In memory response, the immune system retains a memory of its encounter with an invader so that a second encounter with the same invader sometime later evokes a faster and more intense immune response. Generally, both humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity are induced in response to any microorganism.
The Evolution and Mechanism of Immunological Memory and Its Impact on Immunology Research.
The study of the defense mechanisms of the body against foreign substances including microorganisms that enter into the body constitutes the subject immunology.
The study of the defense mechanisms of the body against foreign substances including microorganisms that enter into the body constitutes the subject immunology. Furthermore, malignant transformation of immune cells results in cancer. The invaders are referred to as antigens or immunogens. Essay on the Meaning of Immunology : In the process of evolution, the body of organisms has developed the property of distinguishing self and nonself, the self is accepted and nonself is rejected or degraded. Such people are said to have acquired immunity against that particular disease (Hepatitis B Foundation, 2008). Innate and Acquired Immune Systems : Traditionally the immune system has been categorized into two functional systems:. Serum taken from an animal inoculated previously with non-pathogenic material reacts with the latter in a specific manner, and this reactivity could be passed to other animals by transferring serum from the first. Development of Vaccination : The technique of variolation was significantly improved by Edward Jenner, an English physician, in 1798. The acquired immune system plays a major role against all the microbes capable of producing diseases. Any single mechanism to defend against all these intruders may not be sufficient and hence the body has different types of arsenals to tackle the microbes. To achieve this important goal, the cells of the immune system have mechanisms to distinguish its own cells as self and the foreign substances as non-self.
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